Konstytucyjny system organów państwowych Republiki Litewskiej w pierwszych latach niepodległości (1918–1926)
Keywords:Lithuania, constitution, history
The purpose of the article is to present the constitutional development of the Republic of Lithuania after the First World War (1918–1926). This period may be divided into two parts: period of provisional constitutions (1918–1922) and period of the Constitution of Republic of Lithuania, which was enacted on August 1, 1922 and abolished in fact by a coup d’état in 1926. The parliamentary system of government was adopted by the first provisional constitution, which was enacted by the Taryba (Council of State) on November 2, 1918. The second provisional constitution was enacted on April 4, 1919. The institution of the President of the State was introduced by virtue of this constitution. The third provisional constitution was enacted by the Steigiamasis Seimas (Constituent Assembly) on June 10, 1920. The Constitution of Republic of Lithuania adopted parliamentary system of government, which was known in provisional constitutions. The unicameral parliament (the Seimas) was the most important body of state authority. The President of the Republic was elected by the Seimas. He could be dismissed by the Seimas, too. The Cabinet of Ministers was appointed by the President. The Cabinet of Ministers had to get the vote of confidence from the Seimas. The Seimas could give the vote of no confidence, too. In this case the Cabinet of Ministers had to hand in its resignation. In practice the political scene was dominated by the Christian Democratic Party. It lost general election only in 1926. A coup d’état, which took place some months later, indicated the end of democratic system of government.