Double-Edged Weapon – Reflections on the Scope of the Sanctions Imposed as a Punishment for Genocide in Ukraine


  • Rett R. Ludwikowski Catholic University of America


genocide, crimes against humanity, sanctions and their enforcement, inflation, global economy


The article consists of three basic components in which the author uses legal-historical and legal-comparative methodology. In many parts of the text concerning commonly known information which does not require a detailed presentation, the author emphasizes the selectivity of his comments. In the first part, which is a terminological analysis, the author explains the content of terms such as “genocide”, which require commentary on the definitional components of these crimes that distinguish them from other murders, rapes and war crimes. In view of the decision of the International Criminal Court ordering the arrest of President Putin for war crimes, clarification was required that the Court uses the term war crimes in a broad sense, and, in fact, the Court’s jurisdiction over war crimes also includes crimes of genocide and crimes against humanity. The article also explains the process of the development of the legal meaning of the term “sanctions”. The author emphasizes in this section that his main purpose is not to enumerate in detail the changing and supplemented sanctions, but to consider to what extent the sanctions already imposed have affected the crisis of the Russian economy and to what extent they have contributed to the recession of the “global economy”. In this section, the article explains the differences between the currents of globalization and the globalization which is often identified with global economics. The second part presents the problems that the countries of the market economy tried to solve before the start of the Russian aggression against Ukraine. Many issues, such as the “climate crisis”, “pandemic” or the phenomenon “inflation”, seem to be widely understood. However, for a broader explanation of these phenomena, the author used the comparative methodology which was the most appropriate. The third part focuses on the analysis of the effectiveness of the sanctions imposed on Russia, and, above all, on their contribution to the economic isolation of Russia. This part is also aimed at assessing to what extent the sanctions imposed on Russia exacerbate the existing economic problems of Western countries so to what extent they can constitute the “double-edged weapon”.

Author Biography

  • Rett R. Ludwikowski, Catholic University of America

    ORCID: 0000-0001-7457-3096

    prof. dr hab. Rett R. Ludwikowski – Polish Science (Nauka Polska): database of the National Information Processing Institute (Ośrodek Przetwarzania Informacji – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy)

    Rett R. Ludwikowski Professor Emeritus – Catholic University of America – Columbus School of Law


Borrel J., Inwazja Rosji na Ukrainę naraża światową gospodarkę, Służba Dyplomatyczna Unii Europejskiej, 16.05.2022,

Brown W., The United States and the Restoration of World Trade, Washington 1950.

DeCamp D., Putin Announces ‘Special Operation’ in Donbas,, 23.02.2022,

De Witte M., What causes inflation? SIEPR’s John Taylor explains, Stanford News, 06.09.2022,

Elllyatt H., From soaring food prices to social unrest, the fallout from the Russia-Ukraine war could be immense, CNBC, 04.21.2022,

Falk R.A., Kim S.S., Mendlovitz S.H., Toward a Just World Order, Boulder 1982.

Gottbrath L.-W., What counts as a war crime and why they're so hard to prosecute, Axios, 23.03. 2022,

Gurtov M., Global Politics in the Human Interest, 1988.

Hathaway O.A., Shapiro S., Supplying Arms to Ukraine is Not an Act of War, Just Security, 12.03.2022,

Hennelly R., China’s sale of U.S. debt: Safety valve or cause for concern?, CBS, Money Watch, 31.08.2015,

Iwanek T., Zbrodnia ludobójstwa i zbrodnie przeciwko ludzkości w prawie międzynarodowym, Warszawa 2015.

Lankosz K, Chorośnicki M., Czubik P., Walka z teroryzmem w świetle prawa międzynarodowego, Bielsko-Biała 2004.

Ludwikowski R.R., The Crisis of Communism, Its Meaning, Origins and Phases, Waszyngton 1986.

Ludwikowski R.R, Handel Międzynarodowy, 3. wydanie, Warszawa 2012.

Ludwikowski R.R., Handel Międzynarodowy, 4. wydanie, Warszawa 2019.

Ludwikowski R.R., The Twilight of China’s Decade? The American Problems with the Chinese Trade Policy, “Ad Americam. Journal of American Studies” 2016, vol. 17.

Ludwikowski R.R., Transformacja amerykańsko-chińskich relacji politycznych i handlowych w okresie globalnej pandemii, „Problemy współczesnego prawa międzynarodowego, europejskiego i porównawczego” 2020, Vol. XVII.

Manak I., Damage Done by Trump’s Trade Wars Will Outlast his Presidency, CATO Trade Chronicles, 7.08.2018.

Maynes C.W, US unilateralism and its dangers, “Review of International Studies” 1999, 25.

McDougal M., Laswell H., Chen L., Human Rights and World Public Order, New Haven 1980.

Poggio M., Sanctions on Russia Raise Complex Ethical Questions, 20.05.22, Law360,

Pollok A., Szopa B., Ekonomia globalna wybrane zagadnienia, Kraków 2017.

Raworth Ph., Introduction to the Legal System of the European Union, Dobbs Ferry, New York 2001.

Rodini L., What Is Inflation? Definition, Formula & What It Means For You, TheStreet, 04.10.2022,

Siripurapu A., Berman N., The Contentious U.S.-China Trade Relationship, Council of Foreign Relations, 02.12.2022,

Swift T., Forget the dozen red roses; true romantics should give a dozen eggs this Valentine's Day, InForum, 04.02.2023,

Toh M., Ogura J., Humayun H., Yee J., Cheung E., Fossum S., Maruf, R. The list of global sanctions on Russia for the war in Ukraine, CNN Business, 28.02.2022,

United States and Its Allies Move to End Normal Trade Relations With Russia, Clark Hill, JDSUPRA, 03.15.2022.

Urban A., McLeod Ch., Wołodymyr Zełenski, Ożarów Mazowiecki 2022.

Van De Heetkam A., „Russia Loses MFN Status - What Does it Actually Mean?”,

Wendt T., Strategic Trade: Protecting American Economic and Political Interests, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1990, International Trade: The Changing Role of the United States, The Academy of Political Science.

Woker, D., European neutrality is dying out, The Interpreter, 3.05.2022,

Wolska A., Rosja wykluczona z Rady Europy,,

Walker R., One World/Many Worlds: Struggles For A Just World Peace, Boulder 1988.




How to Cite

Double-Edged Weapon – Reflections on the Scope of the Sanctions Imposed as a Punishment for Genocide in Ukraine. (2023). Miscellanea Historico-Iuridica, 22(2), 579-600.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 60

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>