Rzymskie regulacje prawne związane z ochroną dziecka poczętego
Keywords:Roman law, nasciturus, pregnancy
Legal problems connected with the defining of pregnancy and with the protection of the interests of the unborn child were at first regulated in Senatus consultum Plancianum de liberis agnoscendis, and next in the edict de inspiciendo ventre custodiendoque partu and in the rescriptum divi Fratres. Senatus consultum Plancianum regulated only the question of establishment of paternity in marriage. Edict de inspiciendo ventre custodiendoque partu regulated the procedure, which should have been undertaken after the husband’s death, when former wife claimed to be pregnant. The main reason for these regulations was to eliminate the growing number of illegal practice concerning establishment of paternity, when the child was born after the death of his father or after the divorce of his parents. The results of applying the edict de inspiciendo ventre custodiendoque partu could have the legal importance for the future position of the unborn child. The edict regulated the procedure, which should have been applied after the death of husband, when woman was claiming to be pregnant. Once the procedure was applied, the praetor could grant bonorum possessio (D. 25, 4, 1, 10 i D. 25, 4, 1, 15). According to edictum, you could apply: inspectio ventris, custodia ventris and custodia partus to a pregnant woman. These institutions were used to confirm the fact of pregnancy and to observe the pregnant woman and the delivery. The edict de inspiciendo ventre custodiendoque partu was in use in case of the death of a husband of a pregnant wife and the purpose of this edict was to protect from simulation of pregnancy. According to the edict, the widow had to inform everybody potentially interested (or legal representatives) about pregnancy in one month’s time. The most important group which had to be informed, comprised of heirs of the dead person. According to the Ulpianus’s commentary, both testimonial and ab intestato heirs should have been informed.