Military Congregations’ Participation in Creating and Proclaiming Ordinances and Articles of War in the XVI and XVII Century
Keywords:military oaths, articles of war, military congregations.
The article explores soldiers’ participation in process of creating and accepting ordinan- ces and articles of war. It was possible because of existance in army Sejmików – distinct for rittmeisters (Rittmeisters Council) and for the companions from one unit (Banner Council). In the beginning only rittmeisters had an inﬂuence over forming the articles of war. From the XVII century also companions could present their will. The acceptance of the oﬃcers was necessary to put legal rules into practice. From the nineties of the XVI century we can observe, that commander in chief (Hetman), Jan Zamoyski resigns from knights’ participation and tries, with the help of his own authority and Sejm’ enablement, to create legal rules by his own, without soldiers’ participation. Councils had a much greater authorisation in confederated units, that played a major role in legislation process.