Oﬃcers of the Boards Judging Petty Oﬀences in the People’s Republic of Poland
Keywords:boards judging petty oﬀences, people’s councils, social lay participants.
In December 1951 the collective model of judging petty oﬀences in Poland was introdu- ced. The boards judging petty oﬀences, with non-professionals as their members, were situated as branch of local administration. The candidates to these boards were propo- sed by the state’s enterprises and by the local societies, the members were elected by the local administration – so called “rady narodowe” (people’s councils). After the political crisis of 1956 this model was strongly criticized and non-professional members were singled as the most important reason of low level of judgments. In 1958 additional new requirement was introduced: the chairmen of the boards and their deputies had to get the university degree in legal science. The election of new members in the 60’s changed the situation and the professionals partially replaced the “social lay participants” in this kind of administration of justice. The leading positions in the boards were transferred to members of the security apparatus. As a result, the bureaucratic factor was playing the dominant role in the boards judging petty oﬀences in the communist Poland.